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1. Word: sua sponte
Definition: upon its own motion, initiation or will; without a prior request
Meaning and use of the word: describes an act of authority taken without formal prompting from another party. The term is usually applied to actions by a judge taken without a prior motion or request from the parties.
2. Word: laches
Definition: the failure to diligently assert a right, which results in a refusal to allow relief
Meaning and use of the word: refers to a lack of diligence and activity in making a legal claim, or moving forward with legal enforcement of a right, in particular with regard to equity. Hence, it is an unreasonable delay that can be viewed as prejudicing the opposing [defending] party.